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Question :
How does the Forest conduct restoration – do you use native species?
Category Botany Interview Questions
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Added on 4/21/2008
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The Forest seeds open areas like roads and steep slopes to prevent erosion. Natural regeneration from plants near the area is encouraged. Where vegetation cover is needed more rapidly, seed mixes are used. While we recommend using locally native herbs, these seeds are not always available and we may instead use non-persistent, non-aggressive plants that are commonly used for landscaping and erosion control. General recommendations followed on Forest are shown below:

Seeding Recommendations

Use the lists below to select appropriate species for projects and check with the Forest Botanist if more information is needed. All plants are native unless otherwise noted.

Mesic sites

Grasses and grass-like plants:

Big bluestem Andropogon gerardii

Bottlebrush grass Hystrix patula

Canada wild rye Elymus canadensis

Little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium

Path rush Juncus tenuis

Sweet grass Hierochloe odorata

Virginia wild rye Elymus virginicus


Bee balm Monarda fistulosa

Big leaf aster Aster macrophyllus

Black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta

Canada goldenrod Solidago canadensis

Fireweed Epilobium angustifolium

Acceptable (may also work on drier and wetter sites)

Grasses and grass-like plants:

Barley Hordeum vulgare non-native, annual, not long persistent, for initial erosion control

Buckwheat Fagopyron esculentum non-native, annual, not long persistent, for initial erosion control

Oats Avena sativa non-native, annual, not long persistent, for initial erosion control

Wheat Triticum aestivum non-native, annual, not long persistent, for initial erosion control

Red fescue Festuca rubra some varieties native; perennial


Alsike clover Trifolium hybridum non-native, perennial, nitrogen-fixing, initial erosion control

Ladino clover Trifolium repens non-native, perennial, nitrogen-fixing, initial erosion control

Red clover Trifolium pratense non-native, perennial, nitrogen-fixing, initial erosion control

White clover Trifolium repens non-native, perennial, nitrogen-fixing, initial erosion control

Dry sites

Grasses and grass-like plants:

Hair grass Deschampsia flexuosa

Little bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium

Pennsylvania sedge Carex pensylvanica

Poverty oats/oatgrass Danthonia spicata

Virginia wild rye Elymus virginicus


Black-eyed susan Rudbeckia hirta

Early goldenrod Solidago juncea

Fireweed Epilobium angustifolium

Gray goldenrod Solidago nemoralis

Wet sites

Grasses and grass-like plants:

Blue joint Calamagrostis canadensis

Cut grass Leersia oryzoides

Hair grass Deschampsia cespitosa

Manna grass Glyceria striata, G. grandis

Fringed sedge Carex crinita, C. gynandra

Soft rush Juncus effusus

Wool grass Scirpus cyperinus


Boneset Eupatorium perfoliatum

Joe-pye weed Eupatorium maculatum

Avoid at all sites

Grasses and grass-like plants:

Kentucky bluegrass Poa pratensis

Canada bluegrass Poa compressa

Meadow fescue Festuca pratensis

Quack grass Elytrigia repens

Orchard grass Dactylus glomerata

Reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea

Smooth brome Bromus inermis

Tall fescue Festuca arundinacea (F. elatior)

Timothy grass Phleum pratense


Birds-foot trefoil Lotus corniculata

Crown vetch Coronilla varia

Dame’s rocket Hesperis matronalis

White sweet clover Melilotus alba

Yellow sweet clover Melilotus officinalis

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